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A Common Chemical, Biological & Radiological modelling capability: UK and NATO HLA-Evolved experimentation

ABSTRACT: The United Kingdom (UK) Ministry of Defence’s (MOD) Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl) have sponsored two key development activities relating to the OneSAF Computer Generated Forces (CGF) system and development of a Common Chemical, Biological and Radiological (CBR) modelling capability. The first is an interface to enable OneSAF to operate in a High Level Architecture (HLA) 1516-2010 (HLA Evolved) federation.

The second is an extension to the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) Education and Training Network (NETN) Federation Object Model (FOM) to support CBR interoperability. This acts as an enabler for CBR M&S services to be provided to Live, Virtual and Constructive (LVC) simulation systems by a common CBR modelling capability. Although individually these two developments have much broader application, this paper presents a use case bringing the two together to demonstrate CBR federate interoperability with OneSAF and how this has been standardised, developed and experimented using support from the NATO Modelling and Simulation Community

Authors: Jon Lloyd, Nathan Newton, Russell Mills, David Désert, José Ruiz, Antony Hubervic, Lennart Olsson.
Publication: Proceedings of 2014 Fall Simulation Interoperability Workshop, 14F-SIW-021, Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization, September 2014.

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RPR FOM 2.0: A Federation Object Model for Defense Simulations

SISO SIWzie award winner

ABSTRACT: The Real-Time Platform Reference Federation Object Model (RPR FOM) is the most widely used FOM for defense simulations. The main focus is on real-time simulation of war fighting scenarios including platforms, humans and weapons, however many related interactions such as radio, logistics and synthetic environments are also included. Version 1.0 of the RPR FOM was published in 1999; following this release the development of version 2.0 started. After having published developed several drafts, one of which was known as version 2 draft 17 and was widely used, the development slowed down. But in 2011 the work was revived. The earlier draft standard has now been overhauled and modernized.

This includes fixing many issues, providing FOM versions in the newer, modular FOM format and revising the documentation, known as the GRIM. This paper describes the major updates of the new standard as well as experiences from drafting and standardizing this new FOM version. We believe that the finalized RPR FOM will be of great value to governments, end users and vendors. Technically it establishes a good baseline for interoperability in defense and security training. Policy-wise it provides a vendorneutral standard, developed in consensus by government, industry and academia. Long-term it provides a solid platform for the development of future FOM versions and for inclusion in national and international training architectures.

Authors: Björn Möller, Aaron Dubois, Patrice Le Leydour, René Verhage
Publication: Proceedings of 2014 Fall Simulation Interoperability Workshop, 14F-SIW-039, Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization, September 2014.

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Solving Common Interoperability Challenges with HLA-to-HLA Bridging

ABSTRACT: Recently there has been a lot of focus on gateways between different simulation standards, like HLA, DIS and TENA, for example as part of the LVC-AR work and several SISO working groups. Bridging
between different HLA federations has received little attention. Still, this is a highly useful technique for solving many interoperability issues. It is currently in use in several large federations.


We argue that there are two categories of HLA-to-HLA bridging: quick fixes and long-term architectures. A sample quick fix is when an HLA federation with a large number of objects is partitioned so that one of the
partitions includes a subset of the objects. This prevents federates with limited capacity from being overloaded or crash.


Another case is when federates that use a slightly different FOM or use a slightly different data format are joined to a separate federation, that connect to the main federation using an HLA-to-HLA bridge. In some federations different federates may also use different RTI implementations. In these cases the long-term solution is to correctly adapt all of the federates to the same federation agreement and FOM or to use more HLA
services, like DDM. This may not always be possible, for example because of time constraints, which makes HLA-to-HLA bridging the only viable solution.


One long-term architectural use case is when a federation is partitioned into two federations with different security levels. The HLA-to-HLA bridge filters and modifies data before sending it from the higher to the lower security domain. Another case is hierarchical federations, where a number of sub-federations connect to a super-federation. This is useful where the FOM in the super-federation is on a more aggregated level than in the sub-federations. It is also useful for fault-tolerance in highly distributed federations where local sub-federations can keep running even when the super-federation is unavailable.


This paper presents and discusses a number of use cases, including experiences from real life federations and implementations of HLA-to-HLA bridges

Authors: Björn Möller, Fredrik Antelius, Martin Johansson, Linus Lindholm, Per-Philip Sollin
Publication: Proceedings of 2014 Fall Simulation Interoperability Workshop, 14F-SIW-064, Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization, September 2014.

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